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Open Education and Textbook Affordability at Shoreline CC

Open Attribution Builder

TAL method

The basic format for attributing OER using the TAL method is:

Title -- Author -- License

In other words:

  • T = Title

  • A = Author

  • L = License (i.e. open license)

You can use this method for citing any type of OER, including textbooks, images, videos, and more.

This content was originally created by Tacoma Community College Library and shared with a CC BY SA 4.0 license.

Citing OER using Regular Citation Style

Using a regular citation and adding the CC license info

If your instructor prefers that you cite your sources using a regular citation style, like APA or MLA, then you just simply add the CC or public domain license info at the end of your regular citation.

Let's do an example for an image that I want to cite in MLA style (8th ed.).

This content was originally created by Tacoma Community College Library and shared with a CC BY SA 4.0 license.


1. First step, create a regular citation:

First, you will need to cite the image, video, etc. like you normally would in MLA citation style.


Photo iconBasic formula for citing IMAGES in MLA style:

Owner/author/creator. “Title of Image.” Title of Website, Publisher (if applicable), Publication date, URL. Access date.


Example of citing an IMAGE in MLA style:

Claypool, Robert. “Flamingo.” Flickr, 5 Oct. 2012, flic.kr/p/dh7axD. Accessed 9 Nov. 2021.


2. Second step, add the license info at the end:

The next step is to ADD the license information at the end of the regular citation. So this is where you need to pay attention to the license that comes with each image or video you choose to use -- that's where knowing those symbols, like the CC BY SA, come in handy! You can either use the acronyms (like CC BY SA), or the text versions of the license (like CC Attribution - Share Alike, which is the text version of CC BY SA).

Notes:

  • For images or videos, etc., that are in the public domain, just add "Public Domain" as the license.

  • For resources that are allowed for educational use -- like Khan Academy videos, just add a phrase like "Educational use allowed" in place of the license info.


Example of adding license information for an IMAGE for the complete citation:

Claypool, Robert. “Flamingo.” Flickr, 5 Oct. 2012, flic.kr/p/dh7axD. Accessed 9 Nov. 2021. CC BY 2.0.


Image sources:

  • "Photo icon" by IO-Images, Pixabay, is licensed under CC0 (public domain).

Need more citation examples?

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